Google: Extreme Searching Guide


Millions of web servers connected and in theory, all data can be reached

In the last few years a number of news articles appeared that warned of the fact 
that hackers (or crackers if you will) make use of the google search engine to gain access 
to files they shouldn't be allowed to see or have access to. 
This knowledge is nothing new to some people but personally I have always wondered 
how exactly a thing like this works. VNUnet’s James Middleton wrote an article in 2001 
talking about hackers using a special search string on google to find sensitive banking data: 

"One such posting on a security newsgroup claimed that searching using the string 
'Index of / +banques +filetype:xls' eventually turned up sensitive Excel spreadsheets from French banks. 
The same technique could also be used to find password files"[1]

Another article that appeared on wired.com told us how Adrian Lamo, 
a hacker who made the news often the last couple of years, explained that 
google could be used to gain access to websites of big corporations.

“For example, typing the phrase "Select a database to view" 
-- a common phrase in the FileMaker Pro database interface 
-- into Google recently yielded about 200 links, almost all of which led to FileMaker databases
 accessible online.”[2]

These articles kept on coming up in the online news. U.S. Military and Government websites 
were vulnerable because admin scripts could be found using google, medical files, personal records, 
everything suddenly seemed just one google search away. 
But these articles seemed to show up once every half year and always talked about it as if it was something new. Another thing was, the articles never explained how one would actually go about doing this. Almost never an example of a search string was given. The last time I read one of these articles I decided it was time to find out for myself, whether google actually could do all they say it can. The following is a report of my findings and a description of some techniques and search strings one could use.

Theory

The theory behind this is actually quite simple. Either you think of certain data you would like 
to acquire and try and imagine in what files this kind of data could be stored 
and you search for these files directly. (Search for *.xls files for example) 
Or you take the more interesting approach and you try to think of a certain software that allows you
 to perform certain tasks or to access certain things and you search for critical files of this software. 
An example could be a content management system. You read up on this particular content management system, 
check out of what files it exists and search for those. A great example is that of the databases 
mentioned above, where you know the string “view database” is used on pages that shouldn’t be accessible 
to you and you then search for pages containing that string, or you check the software and notice 
that the option to view a database is linked on a webpage within this software called “viewdbase.htm” 
and you search for “viewdbase.htm” 

The most important thing is to have a clear goal, to know what it is you want to find. 
Then search for these specific files or trademarks that these files have. 

Google Search Options 

Specific file types: *.xls, *.doc, *.pdf *.ps *.ppt *.rtf

Google allows you to search for specific file types, so instead of getting html-files as a result (websites) 
you get Microsoft excel files for example. The search string you would use would be this:

Filetype:xls (for excel files) or filetype:doc for word files. 

But maybe more interesting would be searching for *.db files and *.mdb files. 
Google by the way doesn’t tell you you can search for *.db and *mdb files. 
I wonder what other file types one can search for. Things that come to mind are *.cfg files or *.pwd files, 
*.dat files, stuff like that. Try and think of something that might get you some interesting results. 

Inurl

Another useful search option is the inurl: option which allows one to search for a certain word 
one would want to be in the url. This gives you the opportunity to search for specific directories/folders, 
especially in combination with the “index of” option, about which I will talk later on.

An example would be inurl:admin which would give you results of website urls that have the word “admin” 
in the url.

Index of 

The index of option is another option that isn’t especially thought of by the creators of google, 
but comes in very handy. If you use the “index of” string you will find directory listings of 
specific folders on servers. An example could be: 

‘index of” admin or index.of.admin

which would get you many directory listings of admin folders. (don’t forget to use the quotes in this case since you are looking for the entire “index of” string, not just for “index” and “of”)

Site

The site option allows you to come up with results that only belong to a certain domain name extension 
or to a specific site. For example one could search for .com sites or .box.sk sites or .nl sites, 
but also for results from just one site, but more interesting might be to search for specific military 
or government websites. An example of a search string would be:

Site:mil or site:gov

Site:neworder.box.sk “board”

Intitle

Intitle is another nice option. It allows you to search for html files that have a certain word 
or words in the title. The format would be intitle:wordhere. You could check out what words appear in the 
title of some online control panel or content management system and then 
search google for this word with the intitle option, to find these control panel pages. 

Link

The Link option allows you to check which sites link to a specific site. 
As described in Hacking Exposed Third Edition, this could be useful:

These search engines provide a handy facility that allows you to search for all sites that have links back to 
the target organization’s domain. This may not seem significant at first but let’s explore the implications. 
Suppose someone in an organization decides to put up a rogue website at home or on the target network’s site.

Combining Search Options

The above mentioned search options might or might not be known to you, 
but even though they can amount to some interesting results, it’s a fact that when you start combining them, 
that’s when google’s magic starts to show. For example, one could try this search string:

inurl:nasa.gov filetype:xls "restricted" or this one: site:mil filetype:xls "password" or maybe

site:mil “index of” admin 

(I’m just producing these from the top of my head, I don’t know whether they’d result in anything interesting, 
that’s where you come in. You got to find a search string that gets the results you want.)

Examples; The Good Stuff

Specific file types: *.xls, *.doc, *.pdf *.ps *.ppt *.rtf

To start out simple, you can try and search directly for files that you believe might hold 
interesting information. The obvious choices for me were things like:

Password, passwords, pwd, account, accounts, userid, uid, login, logins, secret, secrets, 
all followed by either *.doc or *.xls or *.db

This led me to quite some interesting results, especially with the *.db option but I actually also found 
some passwords.doc files, containing working passwords. 

http://www.doc.state.ok.us/Spreadsheets/private%20prison%20survey%20for%20web.xls
http://www.bmo.com/investorrelations/current/current/suppnew/private.xls
http://www.nescaum.org/Greenhouse/Private/Participant_List.xls
http://www.dscr.dla.mil/aviationinvest/attendance_5Apr01.xls
http://web.nps.navy.mil/~drdolk/is3301/PART_IS3301.XLS

Admin.cfg

Admin.cfg is, most of the times, an admin configuration file of some sort. Many different software 
obviously use names like “config” or “admin” or “setup”, etc. And most of the times these files 
contain sensitive information and thus, shouldn’t be accessible for people browsing the web. 
I tried a search for admin.cfg, using the following search string on google:

inurl:admin.cfg “index of”

This led me to many results of which many were useless. But some paid out. 
I found for example: http://www.alternetwebdesign.com/cgi-bin/directimi/admin.cfg Which contained a password. 
This was the admin password for a database located at 
http://www.alternetwebdesign.com/cgi-bin/directimi/database.cgi?admin.cfg 
This database contained sensitive client data of this particular company. 
I then proceeded to e-mail the company and tell them about the flaw. They replied to me in a very friendly manner 
and told me they appreciated my help and that they would take the necessary steps to solve the problem. 

Webadmin

A short while back, while working on this article, I ran into this website:

http://wacker-welt.de/webadmin/

The website explains that “webadmin” is a small piece of software that allows one to 
remotely edit parts of a website, upload files, etc. The main page for the webadmin control centre is called
‘webeditor.php”. So obviously, my next step was to visit google and use the inurl tag to find 
webeditor.php pages that I could reach. I used the following search string:

inurl:webeditor.php

and I found the following results:

http://orbyonline.com/php/webeditor.php
http://www-user.tu-chemnitz.de/~hkri/Neuer%20Ordner/webeditor.php
http://artematrix.org/webeditor/webeditor.php
http://www.directinfo.hu/kapu/webeditor.php

All these webeditor.php files were reachable by anyone, merely because the owners failed to (correctly) 
protect these pages by using .htacces. This mistake allows whomever to change the webpages on the server 
and thus defacing the site, uploading files and thus possible gaining full access to the server.

In browsing through these sites I noticed that the file that allows one to upload files is called
“file_upload.php”, which I could then search for at google and find more examples.

http://www.hvcc.edu/~kantopet/ciss_225/examples/begphp/ch10/file_upload.php

A good example:

http://www.pelicandecals.com/admin/webeditor.php

The script allows you to change files, like in the above examples, including the index.php.
In theory one could write or download whatever malicious script one wants, paste this code into 
an existing file or just upload it and well, the consequences are obvious.

there was also a link “Return Administration” and clicking on it took me to:

http://www.pelicandecals.com/admin/administration.html

Where there were customer addresses, where one could change pricing, etc. 

Content Management Systems

Content Management Systems are software programs that allow a webmaster to edit, alter and control 
the content of his website. But the same goes for online control panels of websites. 
The idea is to find out what files are for example the main files of these software programs. “cms.html” 
could be one or “panel.html” or “control.cfg” You find out what filenames a certain package uses, 
you then think of a good search string and hope you strike gold. 

Frontpage Server Extensions HTML Administration Forms

“You can remotely administer the FrontPage Server Extensions from any computer connected to the Internet 
by using the FrontPage Server Extensions HTML Administration Forms, a set of Web pages that allow you to 
administer the FrontPage Server Extensions remotely.[3]

Well, that’s what Microsoft’s manual has to say about it. This means, users with access to these forms 
are able to perform a number of administrative functions, remotely. And that means, these forms should be 
well protected from non-authorized people. Now how would one go about finding non-protected forms over 
the internet? The first thing we do is try to find out what files these scripts consist of. 
A short visit to the Microsoft website or a peek into the frontpage manual tells us that the main page 
for these administration forms is a file called “fpadmin.htm”. So that’s what we need to search for.
Now to find a correct search string that will get us the results we want. When a default install is 
performed, the files get installed in a directory called “admin”. Putting to use what we have learned 
about google search options and the theory behind this technique, a good search string might be:

inurl:fpadmin.htm “index of” admin or maybe inurl:admin/fpadmin.htm

Well, these were the results I got:

http://www.lehigh.edu/~ineduc/degree_programs/tbte/admin/

http://blackadder.eng.monash.edu.au/frontpage/admin/
http://www.lehigh.edu/collegeofeducation/degree_programs/tbte/admin/
http://www.vsl.gifu-u.ac.jp/freeman/frontpage4/admin/
http://www.tech-geeks.org/contrib/loveless/e-smith-fp-2002/frontpage/version5.0/admin/1033/fpadmin.htm
http://fp.nsk.fio.ru/admin/1033/fpadmin.htm

But the frontpage manual says more:

“Because of the security implications of making remote FrontPage administration possible from Web browsers, 
the HTML Administration Forms are not active when they are first installed.”[3]

This means that some of these could be active and thus useful to us and some might not. There is of course, 
only one way to find out and that is to perform one of the possible administrative functions and 
see if you get results. I for one decided not to go that far, because it would mean breaking the law. 
But I’m not here to teach ethics, or at least not today.

Freesco Router

The Freesco router software for Linux as a default, installs a small web browser which allows owners 
to control the router through the http protocol. In other words, a website automatically gets setup 
that allows you to control the router. The default password and login for this control panel is “admin” 
and “admin”. Many people who use freesco don’t know this. You could search for these Freesco router 
control websites by using a string such as:

intitle:”freesco control panel” or “check the connection” which are words that either are in the title 
of these pages or on the pages itself. That’s what it’s all about; you check out a certain software, 
find the part you’d want to be able to reach and figure out which search string would get you the good results. 

Extra Tips

• Remember English is the most used language online, but it’s not the only one. 
Try and search for words or strings that are specific to your language or French or German, etc. 
For example “beheer” is a Dutch word for “administration” or “privat” is German for “private”.
• You can check vulnerability scanners’ scan lists for interesting search strings you might want 
to use or combine with your own strings. Check http://paris2k.at.box.sk/tools/listings/ for some examples.
• Search for files like “config.inc.php” or “mysql.cfg” that could contain mySQL password 
and username combinations. Try to think of good search strings using words like PHP, SQL, mySQl, etc.
• Try things like: inurl:admin "index of" "database" or inurl:phpmyadmin "index of" 
or inurl:mysql "index of" site:neworder.box.sk intitle:index.of or intitle:index.of.private( = intitle:"index 
of private")

Conclusion

The internet is a network to which hundreds of thousands, if not millions of web servers are connected 
in theory, all data can be reached, unless properly protected. Both software designers 
and end users should pay more attention to default installation security configuration and security policy. 
In the end, there are always going to be people who make mistakes, use default installs, 
use poorly secured software or just don’t care or still believe there’s no danger in putting this kind of 
data online. And in the end there’s also always going to be curious people who love to find 
that interesting information they have been hoping for. Google can help you considerably, 
in locating this kind of information and it’s easy and fun 

Basic Google Syntax:

INTITLE - search for string in title
  intitle:"michael moore"

ALLINTITLE - search strings in title
  allintitle:"michael moore" films

INURL - search for string in the url
  inurl:"michael moore"

INTEXT - search for the string in the site body
  intext:"angry white men"

SITE - search specific domains
  "virus" site:infosec.navy.mil

LINK - locate sites linking to the site entered
  link:www.pogo.com

CACHE - search google site cache
  cache:www.whitehouse.gov

DATERANGE - search within a date range (julian)
  "michael moore" daterange:2452389-2452389

FILETYPE - locate files (don't list any html pages, just the files)
  "economic disaster" filetype:pdf -filetype:htm -filetype:html

RELATED - locate pages that are related (similar)
   related:www.usatoday.com

INFO - locates links about site
   info:www.2600.com

PHONEBOOK - locates phone numbers
   phonebook:"fred stanley"

STOCKS - stock info
   stocks:msft

BOOLEAN LOGIC

- "AND", "I", "a", "The", and "Of" are ignored
- a pipe "|" is treated as "OR"
- a minus symbol "-" eliminates the string from results
- wildcard "*" can be used on words, not characters
    ("three * mice" = "three blind mice")
- 10 word limit. Use wildcards like "do as * say not as * do"

Triggers and Switches

- ! = Initializes the "I'm Feeling Lucky" search option
       intitle:"Directory of" sexually transmitted diseases -inurl:book -inurl:products

- ?? = searches the google directory
        ?? "michael moore"

- , = searches usenet database (google groups)
        , group:sci.med* hiv

/images = searches google images
         intitle:cheerleaders -filetype:htm -filetype:html /images

/news = searches google news
         intitle:"saddam hussein" /news

/since = days ago
         "george bush" /since:365

Google URLs

The query "three blind mice" returns
http://www.google.com/search?num=100&hl=en&q=%22three+blind+mice%22&as_qdr=m6&safe=off

query = q=%22three+blind+mice%22&as_qdr=m6&safe=off
num = number of results (1-100)
as_qdr=mx =specifies age of site (x= amount of months)
safe=off =content filter (on or off)

The Good Stuff

1. Vulnerable Servers (Microsoft Based)

http://www.google.com/search?num=100&hl=en&safe=off&q=intitle%3A%22index+of+%2F%22+%22parent+directory%22+
intitle%3A%22mp3%22+-filetype%3Ahtm+-filetype%3Ahtml

Runs this Query
intitle:"index of /" "parent directory" intitle:"mp3" -filetype:htm -filetype:html

  DESCRIPTION : searches for misconfigured web-servers with an open "/" root path and a folder named MP3s

2. Vulnerable Apache Servers (UNIX Based)

http://www.google.com/search?num=100&hl=en%safe=off&q=%2B%22index+%2Bof%2Fmp3%22+%2Bbeatles 

Runs this Query
+"index +of/mp3" +beatles

  DESCRIPTION : searches for misconfigured paths containing mp3s

3. Password Snatching

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&as_qdr=all&q=%22http%3A%2F%2Fbob%3Abob%40www%22&btnG=Google+Search 

Runs this Query
"http://bob:bob@www" or "http://12345:54321@www"

  DESCRIPTION : Searches for password files people save on their hard drives

4. Locate specific site info and passes

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22http%3A%2F%2F%2A%3A%2A%40www%22+teenagepanties&btnG=Google+Search 

Runs this Query
"http://*:*@www" teenagepanties

5. Warez locator Queries

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&safe=off&q=intitle%3A%22index+of+%2F%22+%22parent
+directory%22+%2B%22%2A.nfo%22+%2B%22%2A.rar%22+%2B%22%2A.r05%22+%2B%22%2A.r10%22+-filetype%3Ahtm+-filetype%3A
html&btnG=Google+Search

Runs this Query
intitle:"index of /" "parent directory" +"*.nfo" +"*.rar" +"*.r05" +"*.r10" -filetype:htm -filetype:html

intitle:"paris hilton"+"index of " +"parent directory" +"mpg"  -filetype:htm  -filetype:html

intitle:"PSP"+"index of " +"parent directory" +"rar"  -filetype:htm  -filetype:html

Other Engines:
http://www.alltheweb.com?pg=aq&stq=100&q=%22link+reliability%22+and+url
http://www.altavista.com?pg=aq&stq=100&q=%22link+reliability%22+and+url

Strings:

"index of/root"
"auth_user_file.txt"
"index of/root"
"Index of /admin"
"Index of /password"
"Index of /mail"
"Index of /" +passwd
"Index of /" +password.txt
"Index of /" +.htaccess
index of ftp +.mdb allinurl:/cgi-bin/ +mailto
administrators.pwd.index
authors.pwd.index
service.pwd.index
filetype:config web
gobal.asax index
allintitle: "index of/admin"
allintitle: "index of/root"
allintitle: sensitive filetype oc
allintitle: restricted filetype :mail
allintitle: restricted filetype oc site:gov
allinurl: winnt/systpem32/
intitle:"Index of" .sh_history
intitle:"Index of" .bash_history
intitle:"index of" passwd
intitle:"index of" people.lst
intitle:"index of" pwd.db
intitle:"index of" etc/shadow
intitle:"index of" spwd
intitle:"index of" master.passwd
intitle:"index of" htpasswd
intitle:"index of" members OR accounts
intitle:"index of" user_carts OR user_cart

2 thoughts on “Google: Extreme Searching Guide

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